TABLE 1

Baseline cohort characteristics stratified by total-flavonoid consumption tertiles

CharacteristicParameter valuea
Low flavonoid
intake
(<300 mg/day)
Moderate flavonoid
intake
(300 to ≤505 mg/day)
High flavonoid
intake
(>505 mg/day)
No. of participants838183
Total flavonoid intake (mg/day)206 ± 64394 ± 61779 ± 309
Alpha diversity (Shannon H’ index)3.9 ± 0.23.9 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.3
Sample details and demographics
    Bristol scoreb
        Type 1-2 (%)171213
        Type 3-4 (%)697269
        Type 5-7 (%)141618
    Season of sample collection
        Summer (%)111410
        Autumn (%)111718
        Winter (%)372549
        Spring (%)414423
    Sample collected in the morning (%)828386
    Geographical location
        West (%)302822
        Midwest (%)222624
        South (%)313030
        Northeast (%)171624
Characteristics and medications
    Age (yr)71 ± 471 ± 471 ± 5
    Physical activity (METsc)112 ± 62113 ± 51134 ± 56
    Body mass indexd
        Normal wt (%)494759
        Overweight (%)364431
        Obese (%)14910
    Antibiotics (%)e273023
    Acid-lowering medications (%)f241718
Dietary intake (mean ± SD)
    Caloric intake (kcal/day)1895 ± 5132151 ± 5902464 ± 562
    Protein intake (g/day)g84 ± 1483 ± 1581 ± 14
    Fat intake (g/day)g76 ± 1375 ± 1372 ± 14
        Saturated fat (g/day)g24 ± 522 ± 521 ± 6
        Trans fat (g/day)g2.2 ± 0.62.0 ± 0.61.8 ± 0.5
        Monounsaturated fat (g/day)g29 ± 630 ± 828 ± 7
        Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)g16 ± 416 ± 417 ± 5
    Carbohydrate intake (g/day)g224 ± 33229 ± 36241 ± 38
    Alcohol intake (g/day)g16 ± 1818 ± 1820 ± 20
    Fiber intake (g/day)g23 ± 625 ± 628 ± 7
    Yogurt intake (servings/wk)1.6 ± 2.12.5 ± 2.53.3 ± 3.5
  • a Results are percentages or means ± standard deviations (SDs), where appropriate. A total of 247 participants were examined in this study.

  • b As defined by the Bristol stool chart.

  • c METs, metabolic equivalents.

  • d Body mass index (BMI) cutoffs: normal weight (<25 mg/kg2), overweight (25 to <30 mg/kg2), obese (≥30 mg/kg2).

  • e Use of antibiotics reported in the preceding 12 months.

  • f Use of proton pump inhibitors and/or H2 receptor antagonists reported in the preceding 2 months.

  • g Values are energy adjusted.