TABLE 1

Summary of genes involved in S. mutans UA159 initial adhesion and subsequent processes occurring during biofilm formation

GeneaFunctionReference(s)
Genes relevant to prepare initial adhesion
in planktonic S. mutans
    ftfCatalysis of sucrose cleavage to synthesize fructan to promote
initial adhesion to salivary films
16, 17
    gtfBSynthesis of water-insoluble glucans (α-1,3-linked) to promote
initial adhesion to saliva-coated tooth surfaces and establishment
of microcolonies in biofilm
18, 19
Genes relevant to develop emergent
properties in adhering S. mutans
    brpARegulation of cell wall stress responses, biofilm cohesiveness,
and biofilm formation
24, 33, 34
    comDEPersister cell formation, bacteriocin production30
    vicRSynthesis of EPS matrix components, regulation of bacteriocin
production and cell death
44, 45
    gbpBRegulation of sensitivity to antibiotics, osmotic and oxidative stresses,
cell wall construction and maintenance, cell shape, hydrophobicity,
and sucrose-dependent biofilm formation
28, 29
    relARegulation of stringent response, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation46, 47
    luxSCoordination of collective behaviors and cohesiveness in biofilms48, 49
  • a A hypothetical distinction has been made with respect to genes relevant to prepare initial adhesion in planktonic streptococci and genes involved in the development of emergent properties in adhering bacteria.