TABLE 4

Prevalence of the most common single infections and pathogen coinfections reported in questing I. scapularis ticks in the United States from 2003 to 2017

LocationYr(s)No. of ticksStageaSingle infections (%)bDouble infections (%)Triple infections (%)
of Bb-Apc-Bm
Reference
BbApcBmBb-ApcBb-Bm
NJ2003–2004147A5063115
NY2003–20063,300N14630.51116
7,914A46122610.4116
ME2003100A58167911d117
IN2004100A72544d117
PA200594A52111d117
WI2006100A351484d117
MI2006119A5042118
NJ2004–2007478N1043119
610A4586
IA2007–2009156N17296120
NY2008132A6222261622749
CT2008154A6517161612349
WI2009–2013748N2953121
NY2011323eN67341950
922eA60234
466A551831011
NY2011–20124,368N1956271122
CT2011–2012514N133612123
MD2011–2012124N191123
NY2011–2012207N235116123
PA20131,363A473312124
MD2014–2015168N211125
NY2014–2015299N179334125
PA2014–2015114N2232125
VA2014–2015472N1211125
DC2014–2015253N234125
ME2015154N18343125
MN20151,240N2565221126
WI2015112A41119111127
PA2015–20171,721N251311128
NY2016–2017197A5611840.5239
  • a N, nymphs; A, adults.

  • b Bb, Borrelia burgdorferi; Ap, Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Bm, Babesia microti.

  • c Ap human variant.

  • d Coinfection of B. burgdorferi and B. microti plus Babesia odocoilei combined.

  • e Tested in pools of single individuals to a maximum of 10.