TABLE 5

Distribution of inclusion criteria across three levels of verifiability

List, topic, or concept (no.)No. (%) verified when verifiability was:
Easy (one source
required)
Intermediate (several
sources required)
Difficult (subjective
judgment required)
Lists (n = 198)
    DOAJ (n = 40)31 (77)4 (10)5 (13)
    Cabell’s whitelist (n = 38)18 (47)8 (21)12 (31)
    Beall’s list (n = 57)18 (31)25 (43)14 (24)
    Cabell’s blacklist (n = 63)22 (35)30 (48)11 (17)
    Total89 (45)67 (34)42 (21)
Topics
    Peer review (n = 23)7 (30)3 (13)13 (57)
    Editorial services (n = 36)14 (39)10 (28)12 (33)
    Business practices (n = 59)23 (39)27 (46)9 (15)
    Policy (n = 24)21 (88)3 (14)
    Publishing, archiving, and access (n = 28)9 (32)12 (43)7 (14)
    Indexing and metrics (n = 15)4 (15)11 (73)
    Website (n = 13)11 (84)1 (8)1 (8)
Concepts
    Transparency (n = 54)48 (88)4 (8)2 (4)
    Professional standards (n = 51)24 (47)23 (43)5 (10)
    Ethics (n = 46)7 (15)31 (67)8 (18)
    Peer review and other services (n = 47)10 (21)10 (21)27 (48)