TABLE 1

Genetic identification of yeast strains isolated from ancient vesselsa

Isolate
(common
name)b
NCBI
accession
no.
SitePeriodVessel
type
CultureClosest
relative
StatusLSU rRNAcPhylogenomic treedWhole-genome BLASTeRelation to
fermented
beverages
Reference(s)
Tree
distance
P value
(known sp.)
PositionNode
support (BP)f
MatchScaffold
propg
EBEgT12
(T12)
SAMN08918525Ein-Besor,
North Negev
EB IBPutative
fermented
liquid
container
EgyptianN. delphensishsp. nov.0.0230.02Very similar,
sister node of
N. delphensis
100N. delphensis>0.9Isolated from dry
figs and
identified in
screen for ethanol-
fermenting
yeast
40, 88, 89
EBEgB8
(B8)
SAMN08915826Ein-Besor,
North Negev
EB IBPutative
fermented
liquid
container
EgyptianN. delphensishNANAVery similar,
sister node of
N. delphensis
N. delphensis0.5Isolated from dry
figs and identified in
screen for ethanol-
fermenting
yeast
40, 88, 89
TLVEgRD4
(Red4)
SAMN08918530Hamasger St.,
Tel Aviv
EB IBPutative
fermented
liquid
container
EgyptianR. glutinisConspecific2 × 10−61NANANANAIsolated from
locally fermented
beverages sold in
Nigeria; known as a
beer contaminant
43
TZPlpvs7
(PVS7)
SAMN08918531Tell es-Safi/
Gath
Iron IIAPutative
beer jug
PhilistineDebaryomycetaceae sp.sp. nov.,
putative
NANANested within
Debaryomycetaceae,
very distantly
related to
Priceomyces
100Debaryomycetaceae0.9Found in African
traditional beers
brewed with
sorghum malt
44, 45
TZPlpvs2
(PVS2)
SAMN08918658Tell es-Safi/
Gath
Iron IIAPutative
beer jug
PhilistineS. cerevisiaeConspecificNANAWithin
S. cerevisiae
100S. cerevisiae0.6Main brewing
yeast
41
RRPrTmd13
(Temed)
SAMN08918675Ramat Rachel,
Jerusalem
PersianMead
container
PersianH. burtoniiisp. nov.,
putative
NANAVery similar,
sister node of
H. burtonii
100H. burtonii>0.95Isolated from tej,
an Ethiopian
honey wine
22, 46
  • a Shown is a summary of the phylogenetic identification of the yeast strains isolated from ancient putative beverage vessels and the source, site, and period of the vessels.

  • b Strains’ systematic nomenclature. The first letters represent the archaeological site: EB, Ein-Besor; TLV, Tel Aviv; Tz, Tell es-Safi (known also as Tel Zafit); and RR, Ramat Rachel. The next two letters denote the culture that produced the vessel: Eg, Egyptian; Pl, Philistine; and Pr, Persian. The last letters and number keep the common short name originally given to the yeast strain in the lab, mentioned also in parentheses after the full names.

  • c “LSU rRNA” represents the patristic distance (substitutions per base) between the isolate and its closest relative, given with the probability that this is an intraspecific tree distance.

  • d Shown is the phylogenetic position of the isolate in the phylogenomic tree, provided with the branch support of this relationship. Node supports are bootstrap percentages.

  • e Shown are the closest BLAST match of most contigs and the proportion of contigs that are assigned to this match. See the supplemental material for description of percentages of identities of the closest matches.

  • f “Node support (BP)” represents the percentage of the bootstrap tree that had the same topology as the maximum likelihood tree for a given node.

  • g “Scaffold prop” represents the proportion of scaffolds that had the taxon as their first BLAST hit.

  • h Nakaseomyces delphensis has the following synonyms: Saccharomyces delphensis, Dekkeromyces delphensis, Guilliermondella delphensis, Kluyveromyces delphensis, and Zygofabospora delphensis (40, 90; http://www.mycobank.org/name/Nakaseomyces%20delphensis).

  • i Hyphopichia burtonii has the following synonyms: Pichia burtonii, Endomycopsis burtonii Boidin, Candida armeniaca-cornusmas, Candida fibrae Nakase, Cladosporium fermentans, Sporotrichum anglicum, Sporotrichum carougeaui, Trichosporon behrendii, and Trichosporon beijingense (http://www.mycobank.org/Biolomics.aspx?Table=Mycobank&Rec=36231&Fields=All).