Mutations found in E. coli MG1655 (lac plus) after 1,000 generations of growth under LSMMG conditions with background exposure to chloramphenicola

PositionType of changeMutation type(s)AnnotationGene(s)Usual product
151656T→GBase changeA192A (GCA→GCC)yadLPredicted fimbrial-like adhesin protein
483212A→GBase changeV139A (GTT→GCT)acrBMultidrug efflux system protein
883682C→TBase changeP263S (CCT→TCT)mdfAMultidrug efflux system protein
4187022C→GBase changeP1217R (CCG→CGG)rpoCRNA polymerase, beta prime subunit
4463866A→TBase changeV113E (GTG→GAG)treBFused trehalose(maltose)-specific PTS enzyme:
IIB component/IIC component
4540294G→ABase changeE79K (GAG→AAG)fimETyrosine recombinase/inversion of on/off regulator
of fimA
1617535A→TBase changeE131V (GAA→GTA)marRDNA-binding transcriptional repressor of multiple
antibiotic resistance
1816409A→CBase changeV39G (GTG→GGG)chbFPhosphochitobiase; general 6-phospho-beta-glucosidase
250390A→GBase changePseudogene
(319/756 nt)
lafUPseudogene, lateral flagellar motor protein fragment
547694A→GBase changePseudogene
(114/252 nt)
ylbEPredicted protein, C-ter fragment (pseudogene)
547835+GBase insertion/
(4/1,008 nt)
ylbEPredicted protein, C-ter fragment (pseudogene)
484938A→GBase changeIntergenic (95/47)acrA ← / → acrRMultidrug efflux system/DNA-binding transcriptional
882870G→ABase changeIntergenic (259/26)ybjG ← / → mdfAUndecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase/multidrug
efflux system protein
3826853T→CBase changeIntergenic (165/115)gltS ← / → xanPGlutamate transporter/xanthine permease
4541135A→CBase changeIntergenic (+479/3)fimE → / → fimATyrosine recombinase/inversion of on/off regulator of
fimA/major type 1 subunit fimbrin (pilin)
986125Δ203 bpBase deletion(s)CodingompF ←Outer membrane porin
3558478Δ1 bpBase deletionCoding (151/759 nt)glpRDNA-binding transcriptional repressor
257900IS1 (–) + 8 bpTMRCoding (7279/402 nt)crlSigma factor-binding protein (stimulates RNA
polymerase holoenzyme formation)
882777IS30 (+) + 2 bpTMRIntergenic (166/118)ybjG ← / → mdfAUndecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase/multidrug
efflux system protein
1298718IS5 (+) + 4 bpTMRIntergenic (+250/485)ychE → / → oppAPredicted inner membrane protein/oligopeptide
transporter subunit
1871055IS1 (–) + 9 bpTMRCoding (991999/
1,491 nt)
yeaJPredicted diguanylate cyclase
1962213Δ14,314 bpTMRIS1 mediated(flhAB cheZYBR tap
tarc cheWA
motBA flhCD) ←
Chemotaxis, flagellum, motility proteins
  • a ←, gene orientation on reverse strand; →, gene orientation on positive strand; ←/→, intergenic; Δ, deletion; C-ter, C-terminal; IS, insertion sequence; PTS, phosphotransferase system; TMR, transposon-mediated rearrangement.