TABLE 1

Characteristics and early-life exposure of infants in the NoMIC cohorta

CharacteristicMedian (IQR) or n (%)P value
Total (n = 165)Non-Ow/Ob = 0 (n = 132)Ow/Ob (n = 33)
Parental characteristics
    Maternal age (yr)30 (27–32)30 (28–32)29 (26–33)0.45
    Ethnic Norwegian144 (87.3%)116 (87.9%)28 (84.8%)0.26
        Missing5 (3.0%)3 (2.3%)2 (6.1%)
    Maternal education
        <12 yr education15 (9.1%)10 (7.6%)5 (15.2%)0.002
        12 yr education29 (17.6%)20 (15.2%)9 (27.3%)
        >12 yr education118 (71.5%)99 (75.0%)19 (57.6%)
        Missing3 (1.8%)3 (2.3%)0 (0.0%)
    Maternal prepregnancy BMI24.5 (21.4–27.1)23.1 (21.0–26.1)26.3 (24.2–30.1)<0.001
    Maternal prepregnancy Ow/Ob73 (44.2%)49 (37.1%)24 (72.7%)<0.001
    Paternal BMI26.1 (23.7–28.2)25.4 (23.7–27.7)27.8 (25.9–29.2)0.13
Exposures during pregnancy
    Maternal smoking during pregnancy20 (12.1%)12 (9.1%)8 (24.2%)0.02
    Diabetes
        Type 11 (0.6%)1 (0.8%)0 (0.0%)0.64
        Gestational diabetes1 (0.6%)1 (0.8%)0 (0.0%)
    High BP9 (5.5%)7 (5.3%)2 (6.1%)1.00
    Parity
        No prior pregnancies75 (45.5%)61 (46.2%)14 (42.4%)0.17
        1 prior child54 (32.7%)46 (34.8%)8 (24.2%)
        >1 prior child36 (21.8%)25 (18.9%)11 (33.3%)
Infant and birth
    Female sex75 (45.5%)59 (44.7%)16 (48.5%)0.70
    Twins21 (12.7%)20 (15.2%)1 (3.0%)0.08
    Gestational age at birth (wk)39.0 (36.0–40.0)39.0 (36.5–40.0)39.0 (36.0–40.0)0.78
    C-section delivery51 (30.9%)38 (28.8%)13 (39.4%)0.24
    Birth weight (g)3,290 (2,560–3,750)3,260 (2,540–3,740)3,370 (2,878–3,990)0.31
Infant feeding
    Length of any breastfeeding (mo)10 (5–13)11 (5.5–14)7 (3–13)0.03
    Length of exclusive breastfeeding (mo)4 (2–6)5 (2–6)2 (0–5)0.01
    Child age when introduced to porridge (wk)19 (16–22.5)20 (16–23)18 (16–20)0.24
    Child age when introduced to solids (wk)20 (16–26)22 (17.5–26)18 (16–26)0.12
Antibiotic exposures
    Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy56 (33.9%)46 (34.8%)10 (30.3%)0.83
        Missing5 (3.0%)3 (2.3%)2 (6.1%)
    Antibiotics given to newborn24 (14.5%)16 (12.1%)8 (24.2%)0.09
        Missing2 (1.2%)1 (0.8%)1 (3.0%)
    Child antibiotics before10 (6.1%)6 (4.5%)4 (12.1%)0.11
        4 days
        10 days13 (7.9%)9 (6.8%)4 (12.1%)0.30
        30 days18 (10.9%)13 (9.8%)5 (15.2%)0.38
        120 days25 (15.2%)20 (15.2%)5 (15.2%)1.00
        1 year68 (41.2%)52 (39.4%)16 (48.5%)0.34
        2 years93 (56.4%)74 (56.1%)19 (57.6%)0.88
Childhood BMI
    BMI-for-age Z0.1 (–0.5 to 0.7)–0.1 (–0.6 to 0.4)1.7 (1.4–1.9)<0.001
    BMI-for-age percentile54.3 (30.2–77.2)47.6 (26.9–64.4)95.1 (92.0–97.1)<0.001
  • a Children are grouped by overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob) status at age 12, as defined by age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles of ≥85th percentile.