TABLE 1 

Outstanding questions in bee microbiome research

Field of knowledgeResearch question
Bee health
    1.How do different microbes impact bee health?
        a.    Nutritional versus defensive symbioses?
        b.    Host range and fitness effects of pathogens?
    2.Which combinations of microbes are most detrimental or beneficial?
    3.Do microbes in wild and managed bee populations influence health in similar ways?
    4.How do environmental factors influence host-microbiome interactions?
    5.How do the interactions among microbiome members modulate the impact of individual members, to the benefit or cost to the host?
Evolution and ecology
    1.What are the functions of the different microbes in the bee gut?
    2.Which factors drive the composition and evolution of the bee microbiome?
    3.How does the social/solitary lifestyle of bees influence microbiome evolution?
    4.How has domestication changed the bee microbiome?