TABLE 1 

Bacterial receptors of mammalian signals

SignalBacterial receptorSpeciesFunction(s)In vivoaReference(s)
GastrinUnknownH. pyloriGrowth50
SomatostatinUnknownH. pyloriGrowth51
InsulinUnknownB. pseudomalleiGrowth, virulence54
EGFUnknownProvidencia stuartiiUnknown53, 54
DynorphinUnknownP. aeruginosaQS, virulenceMouse62
Natriuretic peptidesUnknownP. aeruginosa, P. fluorescensVirulence, biofilm, LPS modificationsWorm55, 56
Estrogen steroid hormonesUnknownA. tumefaciens, P. aeruginosaQS64
IL-1Caf1AE. coli, Y. pestisGrowth66
IL-2UnknownE. coliGrowth65
TNF-αUnknownE. coli, Shigella, S. entericaVirulence, invasion, intracellular replication67
IFN-γOprFP. aeruginosaQS, lectin PA1, pyocyanin,68
CAMPsPhoQS. entericaLPS modification, T3SS, invasion, intramacrophage replicationMouse72, 163
GlutathionePrfAL. monocytogenesCellular invasion, phagosome escape, cell-to-cell spreadMouse143
EAEutRS. entericaGrowth, T3SS activation, intramacrophage survivalMouse104, 113
EHECGrowth, T3SS activation, fimbrial and toxin expression102, 110, 114, 115
EutWE. faecalisGrowthWorm103
L. monocytogenesGrowthMouse105
FucoseFusKEHECT3SS, growthRabbit126
Adrenaline/noradrelineQseCE. coliT3SS activation, motility, toxin expression, iron uptake, virulence, growth,QS, biofilm formationRabbit7, 1524, 28, 29, 31, 32, 46
S. entericaCell invasion, intracellular replication, virulence gene expressionMouse41, 152
F. tularensisBiofilm formation, intramacrophage replication, serum resistanceMouse153–155
Edwardsiella tardaMotility, intracellular virulenceZebrafish45
Legionella pneumophilaReplication within amoebaeAmoebae156
Haemophilus influenzaeBiofilm157
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniaeAdhesion158
Aeromonas hydrophilaMotility, biofilm, protease, cytotoxic enterotoxinMouse39, 159
Pectobacterium carotovorumBiofilmCabbage160
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitansIron storage, biofilm161, 162
QseEE. coliAE lesion formation, toxin expression, stress response26, 36, 46
S. entericaCell invasion, intracellular replication, virulence gene expression152
  • a Only studies that used intact, whole animals were included (i.e., studies using primary cells in tissue culture and/or animal tissue extracts are not listed).