TABLE 1 

Host damage response to CNS infection syndromes

SyndromeCSF cytokine/chemokine response patternHost damage evidence
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitisHIV+ patients: low IFN-γ, TNF-αCSF sCD14 and sCD163, and histopathology
HIV patients: high IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 but not TNF-α, IL-4, or IL-13CSF NFL
Pneumococcal meningitisHigh IFN-γ and IL-2, complement components (e.g., C5)CSF MMP-9, microglial NO and apoptosis-inducing factor
Tuberculous meningitisHigh IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, VEGFCSF cathelicidin LL-37
Cerebral malariaAng2, IL-8, IL-1RA, but not IFN-γMicrovascular obstruction and endothelial cell activation
HIV+ immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome CryptococcusHigh IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, G-CSF, VEGF, CCL11Intermediate monocyte radical oxygen species
    TuberculousHigh IFN-γ, CXCL10, IL12p40, IL-6, IL-17ACSF MMP-2 and MMP-9, neutrophil-released S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) inducing apoptosis