Table 1 

Description of antibiotics used in this study

AntibioticAdministrationClassMechanismTarget
AmpicillinAd libitum in drinking water, 5 daysβ-Lactam, penicillinInhibits peptidoglycan synthesisGram-positive or -negative bacteria
CefoperazoneAd libitum in drinking water, 5 daysβ-Lactam, cephalosporinInhibits peptidoglycan synthesisGram-positive or -negative bacteria
CiprofloxacinOral gavage, one timeFluoroquinoloneInhibits DNA gyraseGram-positive or -negative bacteria
ClindamycinIntraperitoneal injection, one timeLincosamideInhibits protein synthesisAnaerobes
MetronidazoleAd libitum in drinking water, 5 daysNitromidazoleDestabilizes bacterial DNAAnaerobes
StreptomycinAd libitum in drinking water, 5 daysAminoglycosideInhibits protein synthesisGram-positive or -negative bacteria
VancomycinAd libitum in drinking water, 5 daysGlycopeptideInhibits peptidoglycan synthesisGram-positive bacteria