TABLE 1 

Diversity in WNV outcomes in humansa

MethodFinding(s)Study
Follow-up interviews after blood donor screenings; 3 of 8 indicator symptoms = symptomatic26% of WNV-infected individuals become symptomaticZou et al. 2010 (44)
PBMCs from WNV-infected blood donors screened for WNV-specific IFN-γ response by ELISPOTThe NS4b epitope is widely recognized across responders; the highest-magnitude T cell responses are mediated by CD8+ T cellsLanteri et al. 2008 (15)
Longitudinal neurologic studies in patients with WNV paralysis41% of patients experience neurologic weakness and/or tremor 1 yr after acute illnessHayes et al. 2005 (45), Sejvar 2007 (4)
WNV+ and WNV blood donors compared for CCR5Δ32 distributionCCR5 deficiency is a risk factor for early clinical manifestations of WNV infection but not viral transmissionLim et al. 2010 (7)
Examination of Treg frequency following acute WNV infection to 1 yr postinfectionTreg frequency increases after WNV infection; symptomatic subjects exhibit lower Treg levels than asymptomatic subjectsLanteri et al. 2009 (16)
Retrospective chart review; 57 patients examined for clinical features of disease56% with WNV neuroinvasive disease, 44% with West Nile feverPetersen et al. 2012 (17)
  • a Abbreviations: PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; ELISPOT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay.