TABLE 5

Samples for PCR screening of CyCV-VN

Samplea Disease/syndromeNo.Collection periodHospitalbHospital location
CSFcCNS6421999-2009aSouthern and central Vietnam
CSFdNoninfectious condition1221997-2011Hospital for Tropical Diseases and Cho Ray HospitalHo Chi Minh City, southern Vietnam
BloodeUnknown902009-2010Hue Central Hospital Hue City, central Vietnam
Human fecesHealthy children1882011NASouthern Vietnam
Animal fecesfNA652011NADong Thap Province, southern Vietnam
  • a  Prior to PCR screening, nucleic acid was isolated from clinical samples with use of the easyMAG (bioMérieux, Marcy l’Étoile, France) or the MagNA pure96 system (Roche), following the manufacturer’s instructions.

  • b  The hospitals from which the noninfectious CSF and blood samples were collected are referral hospitals for southern and central provinces in Vietnam. NA, not applicable.

  • c  From children and adult patients enrolled in the BMD, PVE, or 01SS study (see Materials and Methods for study details).

  • d  Indications for lumbar puncture included headache/migraine (n = 17), trauma (n = 16), postoperative CSF leakage (n = 2), tumors (n = 13), benign intracranial hypertension (n = 1), epilepsy/convulsion (n = 15), encephalopathy (n = 5), external ventricular draining (n = 4), hemorrhage/stroke (n = 29), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 3), cranial nerve palsies (n = 6), and others (n = 11). The patients included both children and adults [age median (range): 36 (1 to 91) years; 67% male], and they were from 26 provinces in central or southern Vietnam.

  • e  Anonymized residual blood samples from an influenza sero-surveillance study.

  • f  Including samples collected from individual animals and boot swabs—from pigs (n = 20), chickens (n = 12), and ducks (n = 33).