TABLE 4 

Energetics of different engineering approaches for improved acetyl-CoA synthesis

PathwayMolar ratioReference
ATP/acetyl-CoANADH/acetyl-CoA
PDH12This study
A-ALD1218
PFL1118
PFL, FDH1218
ACL0217
ACS−128
PK, PTAa−1/2244
PK, PTAb−2/5044
  • a Xylulose-5-phosphate was obtained from glucose-6-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate produced by PK was converted to acetyl-CoA through glycolysis and the native yeast pathway for acetyl-CoA synthesis.

  • b Xylulose-5-phosphate was obtained from fructose-6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the nonoxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate produced by PK was (partially) recycled to produce fructose-6-phosphate.