TABLE 4 

Blood metal levels in control and probiotic groups before and after intervention in SAC and PW study groups

Study group and metal analyzedControlsProbiotic treatedBetween-group comparisons
Metal concnData analysisMetal concnData analysis
EnrollmentFollow-upDifferenceP valueb95% CIResponder rate (%)cEnrollmentFollow-upDifferenceP valueb95% CIResponder rate (%)cDifference (Prob-Con)dP valuee95% CI
SAC(n = 17)(n = 18)
    Lead (μg/liter)48.6 ± 16.1a49.7 ± 21.81.10.79−7.7 to 10.015346.3 ± 16.747.3 ± 15.81.00.41−1.6 to 3.635−0.10.98−9.0 to 8.8
    Mercury (nmol/liter)8.9 ± 2.89.4 ± 3.50.50.52−1.1 to 2.12910.3 ± 7.59.7 ± 4.9−0.60.51−2.6 to 1.344−1.10.36−3.6 to 1.4
    Cadmium (nmol/liter)1.4 ± 1.11.3 ± 1.2−0.10.58−0.27 to 0.12131.2 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.6−0.10.43−0.37 to 0.172200.79−0.29 to 0.37
    Arsenic (nmol/liter)6.1 ± 2.36.3 ± 2.90.20.78−1.5 to 1.9356.7 ± 2.26.3 ± 2.3−0.40.41−1.6 to 0.6744−0.60.49−2.6 to 1.3
PW(n = 12)(n = 12)
    Lead (μg/liter)25 ± 9.034 ± 1390.0112.4 to 15820 ± 9.733 ± 19130.00136.1 to 1900040.35−4.6 to 12
    Mercury (nmol/liter)8.2 ± 3.511 ± 2.52.80.0420.12 to 5.6259.4 ± 2.79.0 ± 2.5−0.40.60−2.1 to 1.250−3.20.035−6.32 to −0.25
    Cadmium (nmol/liter)1.2 ± 0.591.3 ± 0.460.10.57−0.21 to 0.3781.1 ± 0.651.4 ± 0.900.30.0170.080 to 0.7000.20.13−0.092 to 0.69
    Arsenic (nmol/liter)2.4 ± 1.54.9 ± 2.52.50.00321.0 to 3.903.5 ± 1.73.7 ± 1.10.20.68−0.85 to 1.333−2.30.011−4.0 to −0.57
  • a Values are means ± SD.

  • b A paired t test was used for within-group comparisons.

  • c Responders were defined as persons who showed a decrease in blood metal levels over the study period.

  • d Prob-Con (used for the between-group comparisons) stands for difference between probiotic and control (i.e., probiotic minus control).

  • e A t test was used for between-group comparisons.