TABLE 3 

Blood metal levels at the time of recruitment and comparisons to levels found in a developed country

Study group and heavy metalMetal level in test groupMetal level in controlsFold difference
Avg ± SDRangeCanadian avgaReference rangeb
SAC
    Pb (μg/liter)47.1 ± 16.222.5–91.39.00.0–17.75.2
    Hg (nmol/liter)9.5 ± 5.33.0–37.41.40.0–5.56.8
    As (nmol/liter)6.5 ± 2.12.7–10.87.80.0–21.4−1.2
    Cd (nmol/liter)1.2 ± 0.70.9–4.40.890.0–4.61.3
PW
    Pb (μg/liter)22.6 ± 9.67.3–40.58.90.0–45.02.5
    Hg (nmol/liter)8.8 ± 3.14.0–16.03.50.0–18.02.5
    As (nmol/liter)3.0 ± 1.61.3–6.711.70.0–21.4−3.9
    Cd (nmol/liter)1.1 ± 0.60.0–2.73.20.0–8.9−2.9
  • a Canadian averages are geometric means for males and females ages 6 to 11 years (SAC) and of females ages 20 to 39 years (PW) and are based on the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009 [13]).

  • b Reference ranges were provided by the Trace Elements Laboratory, London Laboratory Services Group.