TABLE 1 

e-Biologic types, fabrication methods, potential applications, and potential advantages over abiotic materials

MaterialFabrication methodPotential applicationsPotential advantages over abiotic materials
Reduction in:Flexibility in product designc
EnergyaHarsh chemicalsbToxic waste
Metal/metalloid precipitatesMicrobially mediated precipitation of soluble forms of metals/metalloidsNanowires, transistors, capacitors++
Protein scaffolds for metals In vitro assembly of peptidesNanowires, capacitors+++
Lipid-cytochrome filamentsOuter membrane extensions dried and chemically fixedNanowires, transistors++
Electrically conductive piliMicrobial expression from native or synthetic PilA monomer geneNanowire electrical connections, conductive composite materials, nanosensors, transistors, capacitors++++
Self-assembling conductive protein wires In vitro assembly of peptidesNanowire electrical connections, conductive composite materials, nanosensors, transistors, capacitors++++
Living biofilmsCell growthConductive “polymers” and circuits with potential for self-repair, sensors, biological computers++++
  • a Energy required for obtaining feedstock and fabrication of the material.

  • b Chemicals for synthesis.

  • c Potential for modifying structure with diverse aptamers.